2022 / 02 / 06 (日)

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集中講義「ヘブライ語聖書研究」

集中講義「ヘブライ語聖書研究」
東京大学先端科学技術研究センター・グローバルセキュリティ・宗教分野は、2022年2月6日−9日に、日本国内のユダヤ学および一神教比較学に関する学生・研究者に向けた集中講義を開催します。

本集中講義のために、ナフタリ・シュムエル・メシェル博士(エルサレム・ヘブライ大学上級講師(人文学部聖書学科・比較宗教学科)を来日招聘します。

先端研グローバルセキュリティ・宗教分野では、東京大学とエルサレム・ヘブライ大との間で2019年に結ばれた全学交流協定に基づき、2020年より研究プロジェクト「未来の人文学に向けて:思想研究のための国際ネットワーク構築」(プロジェクト・リーダー:山城貢司特任研究員)を実施しています。

そこから生まれた研究成果を広く日本の学生・研究者に還元し、日本において限られているユダヤ学・一神教/アブラハム宗教思想に関する包括的な教育環境を整えるため、2021年度に「ユダヤ学ならびに一神教比較学のための教育研究プログラム」の構築を進めています。その最初の講座として、集中講義「ヘブライ語聖書研究(The Hebrew Bible: Topics in Modern Research)」開催します。

この集中講義のため、エルサレム・ヘブライ大学からナフタリ・メシェル博士を2022年1月から2月にかけて来日招聘し、対面での直接の講義と議論の場を設けます。メシェル博士の招聘に際しては、日本学術振興会(JSPS)の外国人研究者招へい事業(短期)の支援を受けています。

本集中講義は、四日間にわたり、先行研究の蓄積や最新研究の展開を踏まえながら、ヘブライ語聖書研究における重要論点を、網羅的かつコンパクトな形で、日本の聖書学者・ユダヤ学者・宗教学者など広範な知識人層に紹介することを狙っています。背景としての古代中東の意義と重要性に着目しつつ、律法/預言書/諸書の内容と主な特徴、イスラエル民族史との絡み合い、古代ヘブライ人の宗教思想、聖書の形成史/解釈史といった様々な角度から、ヘブライ語聖書を繙き、共に考察していきます。

本集中講義は、主として大学院生以上の研究者を対象としていますが、広く一般の方にも公開の予定です。専門的な予備知識は必要ありません。参加登録にあたっては、現地参加希望かオンライン参加希望かをご明記ください。ヘブライ語聖書の豊穣な世界に触れることのできる貴重な機会として、多くの方々の積極的なご参加を心より期待いたしております(全日程の参加が望ましいですが、部分参加も可能です。講師紹介および参考文献の詳細については、本文下に付した英語のシラバスをご参照ください)。

集中講義「ヘブライ語聖書研究(The Hebrew Bible: Topics in Modern Research)

開催日時:2022年2月6日(日)〜2月9日(水)
 
開催場所: 東京大学先端科学技術研究センター・グローバルセキュリティ・宗教分野
(東京大学駒場リサーチキャンパス内)

詳細は参加申込者に後日通知します。
並行して、オンラインで集中講義を中継する予定です。
アクセス情報は後日、オンライン参加の希望者に通知します。
 
講師:ナフタリ・シュムエル・メシェル博士(エルサレム・ヘブライ大学人文学部聖書学科・比較宗教学科・上級講師)
 
主催:東京大学先端科学技術研究センター(グローバルセキュリティ・宗教分野/池内研)
東京大学先端科学技術研究センター・創発戦略研究オープンラボ(ROLES)
東京大学グローバル地域研究機構(IAGS)
 
連絡先(参加登録・問い合わせ・その他)
東京大学先端科学技術研究センター特任研究員(グローバルセキュリティ・宗教分野/池内研)
山城貢司(koji.yamashiro@gmail.com
 
プログラム 

第一日:口承と伝説:聖書の最古層を巡って(2月6日)
(1)英雄譚(9:45―10:45)
(2)原初の人類(11:00―12:00)
(3)竜殺し(13:00−14:00)
(4)神話と歴史(14:15−15:15)
 
第二日:律法(2月7日)
(1)法(9:45―10:45)
(2)犠牲システム(11:00―12:00)
(3)浄と不浄(13:00−14:00)
(4)どの神が聖書を「書いた」のか?(14:15−15:15)
 
第三日:預言書(2月8日)
(1)ダビデ王(9:45―10:45)
(2)ヨシア王の改革(11:00―12:00)
(3)預言(13:00−14:00)
(4)エゼキエル:祭司にして預言者(14:15−15:15)
 
第四日:諸書(2月9日)
(1)知恵文学(9:45―10:45)
(2)詩篇(11:00―12:00)
(3)雅歌(13:00−14:00)
(4)エズラとネヘミアの改革(14:15−15:15)

Intensive Introductory Course

The Hebrew Bible: Topics in Modern Research

Lecturer: Dr. Naphtali Shmuel Meshel


Course Description
This course is intended for the Japanese academic audience who is interested, among others, in the religion(s) of ancient Israelites, Judaism and comparative religion. It aims to introduce students to the Hebrew Bible ("Old Testament") in its ancient Near Eastern setting. Key concepts often associated with the Hebrew Bible, such as God, damnation, sin, and history, will be scrutinized through a careful reading of a selection of Biblical texts including the Creation and Garden of Eden narratives in Genesis, the laws of Leviticus, the prophecies of Ezekiel and the poetry of Song of Songs. Particular attention will be paid to questions of authorship—possible dating, social setting, and original audiences; and to transformations that the texts underwent through a continuous process of transmission and interpretation.

NOTE: The course is an introductory-intermediate course; no previous knowledge of the subject is expected or assumed.

Objectives
By the end of the semester, students should
• Be able to offer a clear account of the general contents of each of the books of the Hebrew Bible,
• Gain an understanding of the ways in which the Biblical texts were formed and transmitted
• Have a clear understanding of the main historical processes that shaped the Israelite communities in the first millennium B.C.E.
• Attain an understanding of key concepts reflected in the books of the Hebrew Bible
• Hone their skills as close readers and as critical thinkers

Books
The primary text used in the course is the Hebrew Bible (in English translation) according to the following two editions:
*NOAB The New Oxford Annotated Bible: New Revised Standard Version With The Apocrypha (Fully Revised Fourth Edition; ed. Michael D. Coogan; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
*JSB The Jewish Study Bible (ed. Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
Students may consult one of the Japanese translations.

Required reading and further (optional) reading
All Biblical texts are required reading. Other titles listed are optional unless otherwise indicated in class.


Course Schedule

Day One: Echoes from the Past (February 6, 2022, Sun)

(1) From Faint Echo to Heroic Cycle  (9:45-10:45)
Judges 13–16; 1 Samuel 17

(2) Forbidden Fruit: Reading and Misreading the Bible (11:00-12:00)
Genesis 1–4
Primary sources:
1. “Enuma eliš”
2. “Adapa”
Recommended secondary literature:
3. Bernard M. Levinson, “The Seductions of the Garden and the Genesis of Hemeneutics as Critique” in “The Right Chorale”: Studies in Biblical Law and Interpretation (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2011).

(3) The Splitting of the Sea Monsters  (13:00-14:00)
Isaiah 27:1; 51:9–12; Habakkuk 3; Psalm 74:12–17; Job 7:12; 26:1–14
Primary sources:
              1.   “Illuyanka”
              2.   “The Ugaritic Ba‘al Cycle”
Recommended secondary literature:
3.    Jon D. Levenson, “The Basic Idea of Israelite Religion?” in: Creation and the Persistence of Evil: The Jewish Drama of Divine Omnipotence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988) 3–13, 66–77.

(4) Primordial Texts Preserved (14:15-15:15)
Exodus 14–15; Judges 4–5; Genesis 6–9 ; Ezekiel 28:1–19
Primary sources:
1.    Book of Judith, Chapters 7–12
2.    “Gilgamesh Tablet 11” (ed. A. R. George)
3.    “Atraḫasis”
Recommended secondary literature:
4.   Kugel, How to Read the Bible, 227–231; 390–396.
5.   Jeffrey H. Tigay, “On Evaluating Claims of Literary Borrowing,” in The Tablet and the Scroll: Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William W. Hallo (ed. Mark E. Cohen, Daniel C. Snell and David B. Weisberg; Bethesda, MD: CDL, 1993) 250–5.
6.   James L. Kugel, How to Read the Bible (New York: Free Press, 2007) 1–44.

Day Two: The Pentateuch (February 7. 2022, Mon)

(5) Law (9:45-10:45)
1. Exod 21–24, Deuteronomy 12–26
2. Kugel 2007, 261–279; 286–295.
Recommended readings:
Rolf Rendtorff, The Old Testament: An Introduction, 88–94.
3. Moshe Greenberg, “Some Postulates of Biblical Criminal Law,” in Studies in the Bible and Jewish Thought (Philadelphia: JPS, 1995) 25–41.
4. “Mesopotamian Laws”, “Hittite Laws”
5. “Hittite Laws” (ed. Harry A. Hoffner)

(6) The System of Sacrifice (11:00-12:00)
Leviticus 1–10, 16–17 Num 15, 28–29
1. Jacob Milgrom, “Israel’s Sanctuary: The Priestly ‘Picture of Dorian Gray’”, Revue Biblique 83 (1976) 390–99.
Recommended literature:
2. Nancy Jay, Throughout Your Generations Forever: Sacrifice, Religion, and Paternity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).
3. Menachem Haran, Temples and Temple-Service in Ancient Israel: An Inquiry into the Character of Cult Phenomena and the Historical Setting of the Priestly School (Oxford: Clarendon, 1978).
Additional recommended reading:
4. “The Babylonian New Year Festival”
5. “Ritual and Cult at Ugarit”

(7) The System of Purity and Impurity (13:00-14:00)
Leviticus 11–15, 17–20, Deuteronomy 14
Recommended literature:
1. Jacob Milgrom, “Ethics and Ritual: The Foundations of the Biblical Dietary Laws”, in: Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives (ed. E. Firmage et al.; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990) 159–191.
2. Mary Douglas, “The Abominations of Leviticus,” Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (London: Routledge, 22002) 41–57.
3. David Tabb Stewart, “Does the Priestly Purity Code Domesticate Women?” in Perspectives on Purity and Purification in the Bible (ed. Baruch J. Schwartz et al. , New York: T & T Clark, 2008) 65–76.
Additional Readings:
4. “Hittite Birth Rituals”

(8) Which God Wrote the Bible? (14:15-15:15)
1. Numbers 11–12, 1 Kings 8
2. Kugel 2007, 108–118; 297–316; 335–363; 417–435.
Recommended literature:
3. Israel Knohl, “Two Aspects of the Tent of Meeting”, in: Tehillah le-Moshe (ed. Mordechai Cogan, Barry L. Eichler and Jeffrey H. Tigay; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1997) 73–79.
4. From: Benjamin Sommer, The Bodies of God and the World of Ancient Israel (Cambridge: University Press, 2009).
5. “YHWH and his Ashera”

Day Three: Historiography and Prophets (February 8, 2022, Tue)

(1) King David (9:45-10:45)
1 Sam 16–2 Sam 24
Kugel, How to Read the Bible, 409–416.
Recommended literature:
1. Richard Elliott Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible? (New York: HarperCollins, 1997).
2. Emanuel Tov, “The Composition of 1 Samuel 16–18 in the Light of the Septuagint Version”, in: Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism (ed. Jeffery H. Tigay; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1985) 97–127.
3. “Hittite Historical Texts” (ed. Chavalas)

(2) Josiah’s Reform (11:00-12:00)
1 Kings 12–2 Kings 23
1. Kugel, 520–537.
2. Leo Strauss, “Persecution and the Art of Writing”, in: Persecution and the Art of Writing (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988) 22–37.
Recommended literature:
3. Moshe Weinfeld, Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomic School (Oxford: Clarendon, 1972).
4. “Damascus Document”

(3) Prophecy (13:00-14:00)
1. 1 Kings 16:29–2 Kings 13; Isaiah 1–12; 40–55 1
2. Frank Kermode, “Hoti’s Business: Why are Narratives Obscure?” in: The Genesis of Secrecy: On the Interpretation of Narrative (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979) 23–47.
Recommended literature:
1. Alexander Rofé, The Prophetical Stories: The Narratives about the Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, Their Literary Types and History (Jerusalem: Magnes, 1988).
2. Alexander Rofé, “Prophecy and Apocalyptic,” in Introduction to the Literature of the Hebrew Bible (Jerusalem: Simor, 2009) 402–410.
3. From: Martti Nissinen, Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East (Writings from the Ancient World 12; Atlanta: SBL, 2003).

(4) Ezekiel: Priest and Prophet (14:15-15:15)
Ezekiel 1–3; 14; 17; 20–24; 37–39
Moshe Greenberg, “Ezekiel 17: A Holistic Interpretation”, Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (1983) 149–154.
Recommended reading:
1. John S. Bergsma and Scott W. Hahn, “What Laws Were Not Good? A Canonical Approach to the Theological Problem of Ezekiel 20:25–26,” with Scott W. Hahn, Journal of Biblical Literature 123 (2004) 201–18.
2. Baruch J. Schwartz, “Ezekiel’s Dim View of Israel’s Restoration” in The Book of Ezekiel: Theological and Anthropological Perspectives (ed. Margaret S. Odell and John T. Strong; Atlanta: SBL, 2000) 43–67.
3. Johann P. Arnason, S. N. Eisenstadt, and Björn Wittrock (eds.), Axial Civilizations and World History (Jerusalem Studies in Religion and Culture 4; Leiden: Brill, 2005).
4. Pesher Habakkuk


Day Four: Scribes and Poets (February 9, 2022, Wed)

(5) Wisdom Literature (9:45-10:45)
Ecclesiastes 1–12; Proverbs 19–23; Job 1–15; 38–42
1. Kugel, How to Read the Bible, 506–514; 636–643.
2. Michael V. Fox, “Frame Narrative and Composition in the Book of Qohelet”, Hebrew Union College Annual 48 (1977) 83–106.
Recommended reading:
3. Rudolf Otto, The Idea of the Holy: An Inquiry Into the Non-Rational Factor in the Idea of the Divine and Its Relation to the Rational (trans. John W. Harvey; New York: Oxford University Press, 1970).
4. Rofé, 513–605.
5. “Amenemope”

(6) Song of Songs (11:00-12:00)
Song of Songs 1–8
1. Kugel ,How to Read the Bible, 514–518.
2. Jorge Luis Borges, Jorge Luis Borges, ‘Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote’
Recommended reading:
3. Anselm Hagedorn “On Foxes and Vineyards: Greek Perspectives on the Song of Songs”, Vetus Testamentum 53 (2003) 337–352.
Additional recommended reading:
4. “Egyptian Love Poetry”

(7) Psalms (13:00-14:00)
Psalms 1–3, 8, 10–11, 14–15, 18–24, 29, 42–45, 51, 53, 68, 78–84, 90–100, 104, 106, 110, 120–150
1. Kugel 2007, 459–473.
Recommended reading:
2. From: Jan Assmann, Of God and Gods: Egypt, Israel, and the Rise of Monotheism (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008).
3. Rendtorff, The Old Testament, 99–105 (beginning with par. 2, “We learn…”); 246–250.

(8) Scribal Activity in Yehud (14:15-15:15)
From: Ezra and Nehemiah
Recommended literature:
1. Alexander Rofé, “Late Historiography,” in Introduction to the Literature of the Hebrew Bible (Jerusalem: Simor, 2009) 70–p. 97 par. 2
2. Sarah Japhet, The Ideology of the Book of Chronicles and Its Place in Biblical Thought (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns: 2009) 150–176.
3. “Elephantine Documents”

Lecturer's Short Bio
Dr. Naphtali Meshel joined the Department of Bible and the Department of Comparative Religion at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 2016. His research focuses on the Hebrew Bible in its ancient Near Eastern contexts, and on its early interpreters. Within the broader study of religion, he has a particular interest in Sanskrit literature. His first book, “The Grammar of Sacrifice”, examines the ancient intuition that sacrificial rituals, like languages, are governed by “grammars.” His research interests include ancient models for the “science of ritual”; systems of pollution and purification; and mechanisms of double entendre in Wisdom Literature. He previously taught at the Moscow State University for the Humanities and at Princeton University. He is currently Chair of the Department of Comparative Religion.

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