With the revision of the National Security Strategy in 2022, the information and cognitive domains have been officially recognized as areas critical to Japan’s security. However, efforts to date remain insufficient. While Japan's information space has been protected by language barriers, the development of AI has the potential to drastically change this situation. In addition, excessive regulation of the information and cognitive domains could lead to the highly undesirable situation of controlling speech and thought, undermining the democratic nature of society that security policies are supposed to protect. Under these complicated circumstances, this working group aims to grasp the latest research trends in information and cognitive security, and offer concrete policy recommendations.